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Object contexts: site A (Tsaroukkas)

The first site selected was on a low cliff above the sea-shore, about 1¾ miles SE of Maroni village, on the road from Zygi to Larnaka. The tombs were all of the Bronze Age or Mycenaean period, but were very few and far between, and those that contained any objects were mostly plundered in early times or more recently by the natives. Some interesting objects however and a few gold ornaments were obtained. The work was begun on Wednesday November 3rd 1897 and continued uninterruptedly, though the weather was not always favourable, till Wednesday November 24th when the site was finished off.

Sketch map of Site A (Tsaroukkas) site made by Walters in 1897


Twenty-six numbered tombs were recorded (nos 1–26), while others were observed but not inventoried because they had already been disturbed. The form of many of the tombs was not described by Walters, hence the question marks in the relevant section below. Most, however, were probably chamber tombs.

Tomb 1

Contents: BM: 32 objects
Materials/objects: Pottery; stone; faience; gold; bronze; ivory; figurine
Chronological range: LC I–IIC
Tomb type and status: ‘This tomb was of the usual BA type, about 10 feet down, full of earth, and contained an enormous quantity of pottery, mostly in fragments: partly Mycenaean, partly local wares. Plain pottery of the usual types (glazed red wares)’
Additional information: Eight silver fluted beads; 35 faience beads; three large glass beads; two bronze fish-hooks; three additional bronze knives; ivory pin with knob at one end; bronze pan scale; two stone spindle whorls and a dome-shaped stone weight (with an additional one mentioned with 1898,12-1.170–171; large WS bowl; ‘bellied lekythos of WS ware’ (1898,12-1.101, a BR spindle bottle, is similarly described); two BR jugs, one with incised handle; ‘sub-Mycenaean pyxis’; Myc. jug and two three-handled Myc. jars, one with birds, another with spiral pattern [see 1898,12-1.93]. The plain wares mentioned in the tomb list were presumably discarded. Cf. Johnson 1980, 8, 16–17.

Tomb 2

Contents: BM: eight items
Materials/objects: Pottery (LH III)
Chronological range: LH IIIA–IIIB/ [LC IIB–C]
Tomb type and status: ‘Already opened, perhaps in Cesnola’ s time. Only fragments of pottery left behind. Small chamber, full of stones’
Additional information: Three of the registered sherds belong to the same vessel (1898,12-1.279–281). Cf. Johnson 1980, 8, 16–17. The Mycenaean sherds catalogued as British Museum Vase C379 may also have come from Tomb 16 (see below).

Tomb 3

Contents: BM: six items
Materials/objects: Pottery, stone, bronze
Tomb type and status: ?
Chronological range: LC I–IIC
Additional information: Pierced stone object; stone whorl; ‘pebble of semi-transparent yellow stone’; four worked pebbles; eight ‘glandular’ basalt weights; ‘much white-slip, not kept’. Cf. Johnson 1980: 8–9, 17.

Tomb 4

Contents: BM: three items
Materials/objects: Faience, silver, gold
Chronological range: LC IB–II
Tomb type and status: ‘A small shallow tomb, divided in middle by huge stone’
Additional information: Rivets from a bronze knife; bronze spear-butt. Johnson 1980, 9, 17.

Tomb 5

Contents: BM: eight items; CM
Materials/objects: Pottery, terracotta
Chronological range: LC II–III
Additional information: Bronze knife and gold diadem assigned to the Cyprus Museum, the latter identified by Johnson (cat. no. 57) as CM J 31. Cf. Johnson 1980, 9, 17–18.

Tomb 6 

Contents: BM/CM: no registered items
The tomb list records fragments of Mycenaean pottery assigned to the British Museum, and two gold beads allocated to Nicosia. Not registered in 1898 or identified by Johnson or during the Cyprus Digitisation Project.

Tomb 7

Contents: BM: three items
Materials/objects: Pottery, terracotta
Chronological range: LC I –II
Tomb type and status: ?
Additional information: Another terracotta bull figurine is mentioned in the tomb list. Johnson 1980, 9, 19.

Tomb 8

Contents: BM: eight items
Materials/objects: Stone (carnelian), ivory, silver, gold
Chronological range: LC
Tomb type and status: ?
Additional information: Ivory boat or dish (possibly of the type decorated with a duck-head on the lid); Myc. three-handed jar; faience bead; frags of ivory; part of a bronze ring. Johnson 1980, 9, 19.

Tomb 9

Contents: BM: six items; CM: one item
Materials/objects: Pottery, bronze
Chronological range: LC I
Tomb type and status: ?
Additional information: Plain gold diadem assigned to the Cyprus Museum, not identified by Johnson (1980, 9, 19).

Tomb 10

Contents: BM: one item; CM: one item
Materials/objects: Pottery; gold
Chronological range: LC I–II
Tomb type/status: ‘A triple tomb, most of the objects found in the Western portion’
Additional information: Two silver pins; ‘three long knives, each with three rivets’; two bronze scale pans; frag. of silver ring; faience scarab; frags of silver diadems. Johnson 1980, 9, 20.

Tomb 11

Contents BM: seven items; CM: two items
Materials/objects: Pottery; silver; gold
Chronological range: LC I–III
Tomb type/status: ?
Additional information: Cyprus Museum items: BR I strainer vessel; WS II jug. Also mentioned in tomb list: two stone whorls; bronze dagger; frags of bronze bowl with repoussée decoration. Johnson 1980, 9, 20.

Tomb 12

Contents: BM: 11 items; CM: ?
Materials/objects: Glass; faience; bronze; silver; gold
Chronological range: LC I–III
Tomb type/status: ?
Additional information: Two silver beads also assigned to British Museum but no longer identifiable; the Cyprus Museum was allocated two stone whorls; ivory pins; and a ‘marble lekythos – oblong body’ but these were not identified by Johnson (1980, 9, 20).

Tomb 13

Contents: BM: one item; CM
Materials/objects: Faience
Chronological range: LC (probably LC II)
Tomb type/status: ?
Additional information: Cyprus Museum: Myc. stirrup jar; faience pomegranate vase. British Museum: stone tripod-mortar; frag. Myc. Pictorial Style vase. See Johnson 1980, 9, 21.

Tomb 14

Contents: BM: 18 items
Materials/objects: Pottery; terracotta; stone; faience; glass; ivory; bronze; gold
Chronological range: Chalcolithic; LC
Tomb type/status: ?
Additional information: Three frags of ‘faience’ figurines are listed in the tomb lists as similar to the preserved Chalcolithic example (1898,12-1.55), suggesting a cache of antiques in the original burial or else a much older site underlying the LBA settlement. Also mentioned are: ivory disc; ivory vase ‘in form of fruit with 4 leaves at top’; ‘askos of tea-pot shape, with spout, and handle over top’. See Johnson 1980, 9, 21–2.

Tomb 15

Contents: BM: 12 items; CM: three items
Materials/objects: Pottery; terracotta
Chronological range: The material assigned to the BM comprises typical LC II–III types; two gold beads and one ivory example were allocated to Nicosia: the former have a likely range of LC IB–IIC, with a slightly wider one for the latter.
Tomb type/status: ?
Additional information: The Cyprus Museum material was not identified by Johnson (1980, 9–10, 22–3).

Tomb 16

Contents: BM: one item
Material/objects: Pottery
Chronological range: LC IIB–C; LH IIIA2–IIIB
Tomb type/status: ?
Additional information: In the GR register, these sherds are stated to come from Tomb 2, but the catalogue also lists Tomb 16 as a possible source. This is no doubt based on the reference to ‘fragments of Myc. pottery with cuttlefish’ in the entry for Tomb 16 in the tomb lists. The corresponding entry for Tomb 2 is less explicit. Johnson (cat. no. 130) assigns the sherds to Tomb 16 (1980, 10, 23).

Tomb 17

Contents: BM: eight items
Materials/objects: Pottery, terracotta, stone, faience, silver, gold
Chronological range: LC IB–IIA; LH IIIA2
Tomb type/status: ?
Additional information: Ivory and faience frags; ‘marble double saucer’; ‘small cup with flat bottom’; clay bull figurine/askos. Johnson 1980, 10, 23–4.

Tomb 18

Contents: BM: three items
Materials/objects: Pottery, faience
Chronological range: LC IIC–IIIA; LM IIIA1; LH IIIB
Tomb type/status: ?
Additional information: ‘Large skyphos, white slip ware platters’. Johnson 1980, 10, 24–5.

Tomb 19

Contents: BM: four items
Materials/objects: Pottery, terracotta, bronze
Chronological range: LC IB–II
Tomb type/status: ?
Additional information: The gold beads were assigned to Nicosia. Johnson 1980, 10, 25.

Tomb 20

Contents: BM: three items; CM
Materials/objects: Silver
Chronological range: LC I–III
Tomb type/status: ?
Additional information: The tomb list states that all the contents were assigned to Nicosia, but three items registered by the British Museum are said to belong to this deposit. A stone cylinder, two ivory buttons and an ivory pin were also found in this tomb. Johnson 1980, 10, 26.

Tomb 21

Contents: BM: one item
Materials/objects: Lead
Chronological range: LC
Tomb type/status: ?
Additional information: Also listed: bronze knife; vase with ‘knife-incised patterns’; Myc. vase with ‘matt white on black’ patterns (perhaps a fabric similar to 1898,12-1.92). Johnson 1980, 10, 26.

Tomb 22

Contents: BM: four items; CM
Materials/objects: Stone, ivory, gold
Chronological range: LC I–II
Tomb type/status: ?
Additional information: Fragments of bronze rings and a stone whorl were also assigned to London (but not registered or currently recognisable). The Cyprus Museum was allocated numerous Myc. vases and a terracotta bull figurine (Johnson 1980, 10, 26–7) as well as a ‘small saucer, sub. Myc. red rings under neck’, which was not identified by Johnson.

Tomb 23

Contents: BM: seven items; CM
Materials/objects: Pottery, silver, gold
Chronological range: LC I–II
Tomb type/status: ?
Additional information: Nicosia was assigned a BR I juglet; numerous Myc. wares; the only WPW III vessel preserved by the British Museum; and an alabaster pyxis (Johnson 1980, 10, 27–8). Items recorded but no longer identifiable comprise a pestle and mortar; a stone whorl; two bronze knife-blades; a ring; and frags of ivory.

Tomb 24

Contents: BM: five items; CM
Materials/objects: Pottery, silver, gold
Chronological range: LC I–II
Tomb type/status: ?
Additional information: A Base Ring ware flask was also found but not kept (Johnson 1980, 10).

Tomb 25

Contents: CM; one item assigned to BM
Materials/objects: Pottery, terracotta, stone, faience
Chronological range: LC II–IIIA
Tomb type status: ?
Additional information: Three gold rings; two stone cylinders; ivory bead; 40 v. small faience beads; bronze rings and frags; small faience bowl with ‘astragalos patterns on rim’; faience bowls with calyx decorations (compared to examples from British Museum Kourion Tombs 89 and 102) plus frags of same; pomegranate-shaped faience vase found inside alabaster pyxis (Johnson cat. no. 205) (not kept); ivory plaque with two piercings (possibly a box frag.); two bronze hinges; stone whorl; BR ‘milk jug’ with finger-piece (possibly a tankard); frags of ‘sub-Myc. phiale’.

Tomb 26

Contents: CM
Materials/objects: Terracotta figurines
Tomb type/status: ?
Chronological range: LC II
Additional information: Three stone cylinders; seven stone whorls; frags of ivory and bronze; glass bead; silver bead; 14 faience beads;‘alabaster object, shaped like a projectile’.

Uncertain tombs

Numerous items from the British Museum excavations at Maroni were not assigned tomb numbers by Walters, or were subsequently separated from their original contexts. Some are mentioned in the tomb lists as being from Site B, while others are entered in the Register with no indication of the general area in which they were found. For convenience they are all listed in one group.

Objects from uncertain tombs in this Catalogue are numbered U.1 to U.23.

Surface finds

A number of items from Site A, including bronze weapons, a rock-crystal cone and a gold diadem, were described by Walters as surface finds, though some probably came from disturbed tombs rather than a settlement context. The following surface finds were also assigned to the British Museum but not registered: gold bead, a small gold ring attached to bone, handle of vase with character incised, bowl on high stem, ‘marble’ bowl on stem, ivory frags.

Surface finds in this Catalogue are numbered S.1 to S.8.